Zaragoza Agreement

The Board of Directors met several times, in Badajoz and Elvas, without reaching an agreement. Geographical knowledge at the time was insufficient for accurate longitude assignment, and each group chose maps or globes that showed the islands were in their own hemisphere. [Note 3] John III and Charles V agreed not to send anyone to the Moluccas until they were founded, in whose hemisphere they were. Other problems with the imperial expansion of Spain and Portugal forced an agreement. The settlement was arranged by the Treaty of Zaragoza in 1529, facilitated by charles V`s marriage to Isabella of Portugal, which strengthened relations between the two courts. On February 10, 1525, Charles V`s younger sister, Catherine of Austria, married John III of Portugal, and on March 11, 1526, Charles V married the sister of King John Isabella of Portugal. These cross-marriages strengthened the ties between the two crowns and facilitated an agreement on the Moluccas. It was in the emperor`s interest to avoid conflicts so that he could focus on his European policy, and the Spaniards of the time did not know how to bring spices from the moluccas to Europe by the Eastern route. The Manila-Acapulco line was not established until 1565 by Andrés de Urdaneta. The Treaty of Zaragoza (April 5, 1529) confirmed D. João III of Portugal in the profits of D.

João II in Tordesillas: the interests of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor of the German nation, prevailed over those of D. Carlos I, Rey de-95 -Castile. Charles, deeply involved in European wars and politics and, as always, in deep need of cash, had the wisdom to reduce his losses; and given the French pirates and threats against Brazil and Guinea, D. João ready to take revenge. The most important provision of the treaty was that a line of demarcation from one pole to another was to be adopted, defined by the laying of 19° on a camp NE by E of the Moluccas; beyond this line (which in real numbers, of course unknown at the time, gave Portugal about 187° longitude compared to Spain`s 173°), the King of Castile was not to claim, trade or sail. There was a notwithstanding clause that can hardly be considered anything other than a life-saving pro forma clause: if future investigations accurately determined that the Moluccas were to the east of the true anti-meridium of the Tordesillas Line, the agreement would be null and void. In return, João III would immediately pay more than 350,000 ducats: an advance on his initial offer of 200,000, but a significant backlog compared to the initial Castilian demand of 1,000,000. Technically, it was not, as it is sometimes called, a sale of rights, but a pledge. Probably no one has been deceived by this aspect; in Spain, the transaction was seen as an almost shameful capitulation. [22] Incidentally, this was the first European treaty on claims in the Pacific. The Treaty of Zaragoza was signed on April 22, 1529 by King John III and Emperor Charles V to resolve the dispute over the Moluccas. He did not change the Tordesillas Agreement, but he added another dividing line to the east, 297.5 leagues east of the Moluccas, leaving the eastern part to Spain and the western part (which included the Moluccas) to Portugal.

To reach this agreement, however, Portugal had to pay 350,000 gold ducats to Spain in order for the Spanish to renounce their rights to the Moluccas. There was a termination clause for Spain in case the money had to be returned to Portugal. The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) had only resulted in a temporary agreement. As soon as a passage through the American continent (through the strait that Ferdinand Magellan found in 1521) was discovered and an alternative sea route to the Spice Islands was made possible, another conflict arose between Portugal and Spain: the identification of the Antimeidian, the line on the other side of the world, corresponding to that established by the Treaty of Tordesillas. .